Friday, April 3, 2020

Science Test - Due in one week.

Science Assessment
04.03.2020 - Friday - (Email me a typed response or scan your hand-written responses. Due 04.10.2020 - Friday - )

Complete the following outline on the four (4) cycles we’ve studied.  The first one (THE ROCK CYCLE) is done for you. Write a brief description of;

  1. The major steps in the cycle.
  2. How the cycle is important for life.
  3. How the cycle interacts with ONE other cycle.
    1. The rock cycle begins when lava or magma cools to for igneous rock.  Igneous rock can me broken down to make sedimentary rock, or it can be put under heat and pressure to form metamorphic rock. Sedimentary rock can become metamorphic as well.  Both sedimentary and metamorphic rock eventually get pushed down into the mantle on Earth to begin the cycle again.
    2. Life depends on the rock cycle for land, for recycling minerals and chemicals necessary for life, and for releasing gasses and material into our atmosphere that life depends on.
    3. Part of the rock cycle depends upon the water cycle because rain, ice, and snow help break down hard rock into smaller sediments.




04.03.2020 - Science Notes and Assignment for Friday -

04.03.2020 - Friday - Science Notes (left side)
(Remember to - as always - define CAPITALIZED terms.)
  1. Current Events:  CNN 10 - 
    1. One note on what is NOT down about this corona virus.
    2. One note on the Arabian Desert. (This is a perfect tie in when we study the rain forest! There’s an interesting connection between the rain forest and the desert.)
II.  Seed plants and flowers:  Chances are that today’ll you’ll enjoy several items of food brought to you by SEED PLANTS.
A.  There are more than 300,000 plant SPECIES!
B.  All plants are made of EUKARYOTIC cells.
C.  The building you are in, right now, is likely being held up by plants! Well, kind of. Think about wood. Wood is made from trees and it has its characteristic hardness from CELLULOSE … the cell walls left over after the plant cells are no longer living.

III.  We’ve spent some time talking about that incredible CHEMICAL REACTION, PHOTOSYNTHESIS - the chemical reaction that takes water and carbon dioxide and makes sugar while releasing oxygen in a form animals can breath. The PHOTOSYNTHESIS takes place in an ORGANELLE called CHLOROPLASTS.  

IV.  Most plants SPROUT from a SEED. 
A.  A SEED (the subject of our next observation / drawing) is, basically, and undeveloped plant in a hard shell that protects it from drying out and , often, provides food for the SEEDLING.  
B. SEED PLANTS are responsible for the FRUIT and vegetables that you’re eating today.

V.  Remember the video and notes on celery stalks? All seen plants are VASCULAR, they have specialized structures to carry food and water.

VI.  ROOTS absorb the water and nutrients and bring it to the STEM.  
A.  XYLEM: Carries water, sap, and minerals through a plant.
B.. PHLOEM:  Carries food (sugar, AMINO ACIDS ,and nutrients.

V. Plants are characterized by how they reproduce.
A.  ANGIOSPERMS:  The seeds are located inside a FLOWER  
1.  Product fruit after the seeds are POLLINATED.
2.  Most plants in land are angiosperms. There are two classes of angiosperms.
i.) MONOCOTS (One seed leaf.)
II.) DICOTS (Two seed leaves.)
1.  Produce no fruit.
2.  Usually have CONES to reproduce. (Remember our walk around campus when we observed conifers and saw the pollen collecting on surfaces?)

V.  Assignment for the right side of today’s notes. Define the CAPITALIZED terms and write their definitions - along with a quick sketch (if possible.)

04.03.2020 - Friday - Daily Note

0403.2020 - Daily Note - Friday - 
  1. Good Morning - There’s a class code for STEM added below and the science reflection/quiz is going up to the blog and Google Classroom. 
    1. There will be no online lessons posted by teachers on the Spring Break week.

II.  The link for attendance: 

III.  The science reflection / quiz will focus on the interplay between the four cycles we’ve studied. 
A.  The science assignment is based on yesterday’s notes; with defining the CAPITALIZED terms and drawing a flower. We’ll identify the parts of a flower and review how traits are mixed and passed along.

B.  CNN 10 link for current events ….

IV.  Google classroom links.
A. The Google Classroom links:
    1.  Math.      o5jdv6r

    2.  Science.     xxhaswm

    3.  STEM:  yox77qa

V.  Kahn Academy log in code:
A.  The Kahn Academy class code for math:  77R2HNBX   

VI.  Have a great weekend and look for the flower update in the science notes as well as one more Kahn Academy update for math.

Scott Forbes

Thursday, April 2, 2020

04.02.2020 - Thursday - Science - (left side of notes)

04.02.2020 – Thursday – Science Notes
(Left side of notebook – remember to look up, and write, the definitions of any CAPITALIZED words.)
I.  Current Events:  Two (2) please from today’s CNN 10 on the virus and/or masks.
II.  Tomorrow’s email assessment:  You are asked to write about the four cycles we’ve studied and how they interact and provide an environment for life here on Earth. The questions will be posted by 9:00 am Friday, 4/3.

III.  Reproduction on land:  When PHOTOSYNTHESIZING organisms adapted to life on land, obtaining water was not the only challenge they had to overcome. Reproduction strategies changed as well. Reproduction can happen in two ways.
         A.  Sexual reproduction.
                  1.  Involves GAMETES.
                  2.  MEIOSIS
                           i) FERTILIZATION
         B.  Asexual reproduction
                  1.  There’s no fusion (joining) of GAMETES.
                  2.  Usually, in asexual reproduction, the plant makes an exact copy of itself. Basically, a clone. Sometimes, however, there may be a MUTATION.
         C.  Current events tie-in:  When MUTATIONS occur in a corona virus, the virus might gain the ability to infect people, or other animals, more efficiently – as COVID 19 apparently has.

IV.  FLOWERING PLANTS – These are the DOMINANT plant form on land.
         A.  FLOWERS:  Produce male and female GAMETES.
         B.  POLLINATION: Occurs when the GAMETES combine.

V.  When organisms were surrounded by water – before life adapted to land – gametes could easily combine in liquid water without concern for drying out and traveling from place to place.  Now that there are land plants … I want you to think about at least two (2) ways GAMETES can “meet” on land. 


04.02.2020 - Thursday - - Daily Note -

04.02.2020 – Thursday –
     Good morning. In math some more Kahn Academy has been assigned along with the unit 6 work. Yesterday’s science notes were posted on the blog and in Google classroom, focusing on the Nitrogen Cycle. Students were asked to sketch the cycle themselves for the right side of the notes and tomorrow’s assessment will be about the four cycles we’ve talked about. (Nitrogen, Carbon, Water, and Rock.) I’ll post a sketch for the right side of yesterday’s notes as well.
     My goal today is to work on week-long packets and move beyond the day-to-day assignments.
     I hope everyone is doing well. I received some wonderful tree sketches and rock cycle descriptions. I’ll try to improve the quality of those wonderful YouTube videos J …. OK, there’s, probably, no chance I’ll make a living as a “YouTuber;” but I do hope the video clips help[ with a quick review of where we’ve been and where we’re going in science. – Thanks

I.  Here’s the link for attendance.

II.  Here’s the link for current events - CNN 10 -

III.  The link to a google blog for notes:

IV. The Kahn Academy class code for math:  77R2HNBX

V.  The Google Classroom links:
 1.  Math.      o5jdv6r

 2.  Science.     xxhaswm

 3.  STEM.       yox77qa.       

VI.  For math we’re heading into Unit 6, Lesson 5b

Thanks and have a great day everyone!  

Scott Forbes

Wednesday, April 1, 2020

04.01.2020 - Wednesday - Science -

(left side of today's science notes. For the right side, sketch the Nitrogen Cycle! I'll put up my sketch of it later but I would like you to challenge yourself to draw the cycle, using arrows to show how Nitrogen travels through our ECOSYSTEM.)

04.01.2020 – Wednesday – Science –
Nitrogen Cycle notes – Remember to define CAPITALIZED words J

I.    Current events and the nitrogen cycle.
a.     The current pandemic is caused by a virus. All viruses are strands of DNA or RNA (genetic code) surrounded by a protein “coat.” (capsid.)
b.    Nitrogen plays and important role in both the structure of PROTEIN and DNA and RNA.

II. When we take a breath at sea level only about 21 percent of that breath is oxygen.  More than three-fourths of that breath is nitrogen gas.
a.     Nitrogen gas, in our atmosphere, is generally INERT and we breathe it in and out but it can’t be absorbed by our lungs and used by our body in the form it is in while it’s in our atmosphere.

III.      Rain and snow bring nitrogen to the SOIL and certain kinds of bacteria that live in SYMBIOSIS with plant roots break apart the nitrogen MOLECULE and recombine it with hydrogen.
a.     Remember our analogy of atoms to “Legos?” Atoms (individual Lego) can be combined and recombined to make all kinds of COMPOUNDS. From two hydrogen, and one oxygen, atom combining to make a WATER MOLECULE, to Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, and Oxygen (along with some other types of atoms) linking in very long chains to make DNA and RNA or PROTEINS.

IV.         Plants use the nitrogen compounds and animals are able to get these nitrogen compounds into their bodies – in a form they can now use – by eating plants or other animals.
V.    When animals get rid of waste, or die and decompose, the nitrogen is returned to the soil where plants can use it again (thanks to bacteria) or it’s released to the atmosphere to complete the cycle.

Tuesday, March 31, 2020

03.31.2020 - Tuesday - (left side of science notebooks)

03.31.2020 - Tuesday -
Science notes and assignment (left side of notebook)

YouTube:  I’ve tried to post a few, quick, YouTube videos. They’re not, exactly, professional science videos :-) but, they are meant to remind us of some of the subjects we’ve studies this school year. The most recent was on local tie-ins. (Montara Mountain, seasons, etc.)
The quick video on pitch, or frequency, will relate to notes later this week about how plants use only certain frequencies of light for PHOTOSYNTHESIS.

  1. Current Events:  Check out CNN 10 today as they talk about the Olympics being postponed and also about the city of Lisbon.
II.  Notes: NITROGEN CYCLE and life.
A.  We, currently recognize SIX KINGDOMS of life.  Not long ago, we recognized five.  The BACTERIA kingdom was divided into two, separate, kingdoms; archaebacteria and bacteria. The archaebacteria are bacteria that have been found in “extreme” environments like hot springs and hydrothermal vents in our oceans. These are places where scientists thought life could not exist and it means that we can look for life beyond Earth (extra-terrestrial life) in more harsh environments that we originally thought.
B.  The kingdoms are:
1.  Archaebacteria
2.  Bacteria
3.  Plants
4,  Procaryotes
5.  Animals
6.  Fungi

C.  You’ll, probably, see procaryotes (one-celled, organisms that have a nucleus) further subdivided into different kingdoms in the next few years. 

III.  For PLANTS to be able to survive on land they had to be able to use NITROGEN for growth and to use in CHEMICAL REACTIONS. Most of our atmosphere is NITROGEN, (about 80 percent!) so we might think that obtaining nitrogen wouldn’t be a problem. However, plants can’t use the Nitrogen in the atmosphere directly. The Nitrogen in the atmosphere travels around in pairs (N2).  So … how do plants get the Nitrogen they need?
A.  This is where BACTERIA come in. There are special bacteria in the soil that take the nitrogen that falls with the rain and combines it with oxygen and, basically, rearranges the nitrogen so that it can be taken up and used by the roots of plants.

IV.  Class tie-in. Remember “The Martian” again!  Mark Watney was studying DIRT on Mars. When he became stranded on Mars, and had to farm potatoes to survive, he added the human waste from the crew with Martian dirt in an attempt to make SOIL. SOIL is alive! Dirt is not.

Monday, March 30, 2020

03.30.2020 Science work today.

03.30.2020 - Monday - 
    Hi class.  Last Monday you were asked to calculate how long it would take for a radio signal to go between Earth and Mars when they are at both their closest and their furthest in their orbits. Remember from way back when we watched "The Martian," Matt Damon's character, " Mark Watney was communication with Earth and his ship, The Hermes. We mentioned how they would have to edit out the time delay in the communication because it's not almost instantaneous like it seems here on Earth when we're talking on the phone with a friend.
    This lesson is not only meant to be a math connection in science but, as we'll dive into more deeply this week, radio waves are just another type of light in the electromagnetic spectrum.  Plants use only certain colors of light to perform PHOTOSYNTHESIS.  Light travels a CONSTANT speed (186,000 miles per second or 300,000 km per second.) It's amazing that, even at 300,000 kilometers per second, it would still take more than twenty minutes for a radio signal to reach Mars from Earth during certain times in our orbit. Your job ... calculate how long it would take the radio signal to travel when we are at our CLOSEST with Mars. (About 55 million kilometers - see Monday's notes.)

(Place the following in in your notes)

03.30.2020 - Monday -

Science / Math / STEM - 03.30.2020 - Monday - 

     Good morning! In the core classes of science and math we are moving forward with the lessons. In science, today, I’ll post a recap of what should be in our third trimester science notebooks.  

     On a personal note; this stay-at-home time isn’t like any time before when we’ve been away from school for air quality issues or bad weather. Today happens to be the birthday of our own sixth grader and , as I watch him and help him with his own assignments from school, I’m mindful that students need to move forward with their studies while balancing the realities that this virus has brought to our community. The science and math lessons are moving ahead with the curriculum while not overloading students at a time that can be stressful. We’ve certainly experienced the strange, new reality of masks, social distancing, and trying to keep in touch with friends and family who need support and connection.

    In science we’re using the McGraw / Hill curriculum but adapted so that students can check things out from home. This week we’ll be looking at flowers! It’s Spring and flowers should be out in abundance and - as we study the cycles that make life possible here on Earth - we can use flowers as a way to talk about traits, life’s adaptations to land, evolution, and how all of this related to what is happening right now in our world.

     A few links and a check in for the day.

  1. Here’s the link for attendance.

II.  Link for “One min science” - Videos that recap and introduce some of our class concepts.

III.  Link for current events - CNN 10 -

IV.  Link for Google Blog -

S. Forbes

03.30.2020 - Monday - Plan for this week -

Plan for week 31 - H4 - Math /Science / STEM - S. Forbes
One minute science videos (based on our curriculum) uploaded at

Google Blog mirroring the content in the Google Classrooms at.

  1. Monday:
    1. Math:  Unit 6, Lesson 5a (first half) plus notes.
    2. Science:  Nitrogen Cycle - Notes (Reminders and re-out to students who still have to turn in Carbon Cycle assignment and tree picture.)
    3. STEM:  Programming - Symbols
II.  Tuesday:
A.  Math:  Unit 6, Lesson 5b (second half) plus notes
B.  Science: Life adapting to land - Case study: Flowers
C.  STEM:  Programming - Flowcharts

III.  Wednesday:
A,  Math:  Kahn Academy and “Review / Preview.” Focus
B.  Science:  Adapted from McGraw / Hill - Flowers, traits, and DNA.
C.  STEM:  Computers - Essential parts of computers.

IV.  Thursday:
A.  Math:  Self-correcting Unit 6 lessons and begin lesson 6
B.  Science:  Punnett square review.
C,  STEM:  Computers - Virus’ and hacking

V.  Friday:
A.  Math:  Write-in Unit 6 - Mid Unit assessment.
B.  Science:  Write-in - Science Assessment. Notes on the ecosystem. Natural vs. Artificial selection.
C.  Computers and tech - Artificial intelligence. (AI.) 

Friday, March 27, 2020

03.27.2020 - Friday - Science Notes -

03.27.2020 - Friday - 
Science Notes and reading - Left side of science notebooks -
  1. Current Events:  Two notes on Nicaragua.  
    1. (link to CNN 10)
II.  Today’s “One minute science” video from home.
       A.  (link).

III.  Life and the carbon and rock cycles:
A.  We’ve seen that the rocks and carbon cycle interact to make an environment on this planet that can support life.  When we had a unit on ENERGY we learned about heat transfer.
1.  Conduction:  Heat transfer when things are in contact.
2.  Convection:  Circular flow in a liquid that transfers heat. Hot fluid rises while relatively cold fluid sinks.
3.  Radiation:  Electromagnetic waves.  We studied how, even though our sun in almost 100 million miles away the energy from hydrogen fusion reacher Earth by RADIATION. 

IV.  On yesterday’s “One minute science” we tapped glasses with a fork and noticed there was a different pitch to each glass. The glasses were the same size but were filled with varying amounts of water.  The different frequencies of sound are a little like the different frequencies of light that reach Earth.  There are many more frequencies than our human eyes can actually see! 
A.  Plants use colors other than green when carrying out PHOTOSYNTHESIS.  The light energy helps plants, and other photosynthesizing organisms, convert water and carbon dioxide into sugar and oxygen.

V.  If it wasn’t for the ROCK CYCLE, powered by CONVECTION CURRENTS inside our planet, there’s would be no new land for plants, animals, fungi, or bacteria to  inhabit. But, as we’ve seen by checking out pictures of places like Yosemite, bare rock can be made habitable by lichens and other processes that break down the rock and make soil.

VI.  Early life that photosynthesized didn’t have to “worry” too much about water as they were living in an ocean or lake. As life moved on land, however, obtaining water became a problem.

VII.  Based on your observations of the tree (you sketched) and the celery stalk (from today’s One-minute science video) how do you think life ADAPTED to land? 
A.  In other words, how to trees and plants get - and hold on to - WATER?